Best April Fool Pranks and Tricks | Nasty Stuff | Practical Jokes

Pranks You Can Play:
  • Rearrange somebody's drawers or file cabinets in a different order and see them baffled.
  • Hard boil an egg and place it in the regular egg carton the night before. In the morning, ask someone to help you make breakfast and beat the egg to make omelets. Hand them the hard-boiled egg and watch them trying to crack it!
  • On the other hand, you may just glue the eggs to the carton and ask someone to hand them to you in the morning. As the victims struggle to take the eggs out of the carton, they break.
  • There are lots of fantastic tricks for heavy sleepers. Some of the popular ones are:
  • Draw funny eyebrows and moustache on their faces while they are asleep.
  • o Place some whipped cream in their hands and tickle their nose with a feather.
  • o Placing someone's hand while they are asleep in a bowl of cold water is a sure way to make them wet their beds.
  • Go to office early by half an hour on April 1 and tape down the ball at the bottom of everybody's mouse. See everybody surprised to find out that nobody's mouse is working. Works only on scroll mouse.
  • This one is to play Dr Dolittle. Tape a little walky-talky on your pet or hide it somewhere near where it is laying. Walk off to a safe distance where you can keep yourself hidden from others with the other piece. As soon as another family member tries to pick up or pat on the back of your pet, say in a gruff voice, "I hate you doing this to me." See them jump with fright and shock.
  • Late at night, fill the hair-dryer with baby powder. Catch the expression of someone who has just washed his or her hair and turned it white by using the hair dryer.
  • This can be done in class, office or home. Ask your friends, colleagues and siblings to perform particular actions together at the same pre-planned time like dropping their pencils at the same time, to tie shoelaces, to reboot their computers, to drink water or any such innocent actions. These synchronized actions are sure to surprise anybody who will wonder about what is happening.
  • Good for teachers. Tell your students that you are just going to note the scores that they have got on their tests or exams and will hand out to them after an hour. Go to the room and them keep running out looking like very scared and tell them that the principal has just spilled coffee or ink on the test/examination papers and they will have to take them again. Note their reactions and exclamations. You can bet that the dullest of all students will loudly claim that they had done their best this time and it is not fair to them. Then you can tell them how much they have really scored.

Best April Fool Day Pranks

 
#1: The Swiss Spaghetti Harvest
spaghetti harvest1957: The respected BBC news show Panorama announced that thanks to a very mild winter and the virtual elimination of the dreaded spaghetti weevil, Swiss farmers were enjoying a bumper spaghetti crop. It accompanied this announcement with footage of Swiss peasants pulling strands of spaghetti down from trees. Huge numbers of viewers were taken in. Many called the BBC wanting to know how they could grow their own spaghetti tree. To this the BBC diplomatically replied, "place a sprig of spaghetti in a tin of tomato sauce and hope for the best."

#2: Sidd Finch
Sidd 
Finch1985: Sports Illustrated published a story about a new rookie pitcher who planned to play for the Mets. His name was Sidd Finch, and he could reportedly throw a baseball at 168 mph with pinpoint accuracy. This was 65 mph faster than the previous record. Surprisingly, Sidd Finch had never even played the game before. Instead, he had mastered the "art of the pitch" in a Tibetan monastery under the guidance of the "great poet-saint Lama Milaraspa." Mets fans celebrated their teams' amazing luck at having found such a gifted player, and Sports Illustrated was flooded with requests for more information. In reality this legendary player only existed in the imagination of the author of the article, George Plimpton.

#3: Instant Color TV
image1962: In 1962 there was only one tv channel in Sweden, and it broadcast in black and white. The station's technical expert, Kjell Stensson, appeared on the news to announce that, thanks to a new technology, viewers could convert their existing sets to display color reception. All they had to do was pull a nylon stocking over their tv screen. Stensson proceeded to demonstrate the process. Thousands of people were taken in. Regular color broadcasts only commenced in Sweden on April 1, 1970.




#4: The Taco Liberty Bell
Taco 
Liberty Bell1996: The Taco Bell Corporation announced it had bought the Liberty Bell and was renaming it the Taco Liberty Bell. Hundreds of outraged citizens called the National Historic Park in Philadelphia where the bell was housed to express their anger. Their nerves were only calmed when Taco Bell revealed, a few hours later, that it was all a practical joke. The best line of the day came when White House press secretary Mike McCurry was asked about the sale. Thinking on his feet, he responded that the Lincoln Memorial had also been sold. It would now be known, he said, as the Ford Lincoln Mercury Memorial.




#5: San Serriffe
image1977: The British newspaper The Guardian published a special seven-page supplement devoted to San Serriffe, a small republic said to consist of several semi-colon-shaped islands located in the Indian Ocean. A series of articles affectionately described the geography and culture of this obscure nation. Its two main islands were named Upper Caisse and Lower Caisse. Its capital was Bodoni, and its leader was General Pica. The Guardian's phones rang all day as readers sought more information about the idyllic holiday spot. Only a few noticed that everything about the island was named after printer's terminology. The success of this hoax is widely credited with launching the enthusiasm for April Foolery that gripped the British tabloids in subsequent decades.


#6: Nixon for President
1992: National Public Radio's Talk of the Nation program announced that Richard Nixon, in a surprise move, was running for President again. His new campaign slogan was, "I didn't do anything wrong, and I won't do it again." Accompanying this announcement were audio clips of Nixon delivering his candidacy speech. Listeners responded viscerally to the announcement, flooding the show with calls expressing shock and outrage. Only during the second half of the show did the host John Hockenberry reveal that the announcement was a practical joke. Nixon's voice was impersonated by comedian Rich Little.



#7: Alabama Changes the Value of Pi
1998: The April 1998 issue of the New Mexicans for Science and Reason newsletter contained an article claiming that the Alabama state legislature had voted to change the value of the mathematical constant pi from 3.14159 to the 'Biblical value' of 3.0. Soon the article made its way onto the internet, and then it rapidly spread around the world, forwarded by email. It only became apparent how far the article had spread when the Alabama legislature began receiving hundreds of calls from people protesting the legislation. The original article, which was intended as a parody of legislative attempts to circumscribe the teaching of evolution, was written by physicist Mark Boslough.





#8: The Left-Handed Whopper
1998: Burger King published a full page advertisement in USA Today announcing the introduction of a new item to their menu: a "Left-Handed Whopper" specially designed for the 32 million left-handed Americans. According to the advertisement, the new whopper included the same ingredients as the original Whopper (lettuce, tomato, hamburger patty, etc.), but all the condiments were rotated 180 degrees for the benefit of their left-handed customers. The following day Burger King issued a follow-up release revealing that although the Left-Handed Whopper was a hoax, thousands of customers had gone into restaurants to request the new sandwich. Simultaneously, according to the press release, "many others requested their own 'right handed' version."

#9: Hotheaded Naked Ice Borers
Hotheaded Naked Ice Borer1995: Discover Magazine reported that the highly respected wildlife biologist Dr. Aprile Pazzo had found a new species in Antarctica: the hotheaded naked ice borer. These fascinating creatures had bony plates on their heads that, fed by numerous blood vessels, could become burning hot, allowing the animals to bore through ice at high speeds. They used this ability to hunt penguins, melting the ice beneath the penguins and causing them to sink downwards into the resulting slush where the hotheads consumed them. After much research, Dr. Pazzo theorized that the hotheads might have been responsible for the mysterious disappearance of noted Antarctic explorer Philippe Poisson in 1837. "To the ice borers, he would have looked like a penguin," the article quoted her as saying. Discover received more mail in response to this article than they had received for any other article in their history.

#10: Planetary Alignment Decreases Gravity
1976: The British astronomer Patrick Moore announced on BBC Radio 2 that at 9:47 AM a once-in-a-lifetime astronomical event was going to occur that listeners could experience in their very own homes. The planet Pluto would pass behind Jupiter, temporarily causing a gravitational alignment that would counteract and lessen the Earth's own gravity. Moore told his listeners that if they jumped in the air at the exact moment that this planetary alignment occurred, they would experience a strange floating sensation. When 9:47 AM arrived, BBC2 began to receive hundreds of phone calls from listeners claiming to have felt the sensation. One woman even reported that she and her eleven friends had risen from their chairs and floated around the room.

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Priyanka Chopra's Visit To Kashmir | Shooting For A Movie

Priyanka is currently in Kashmir to shoot her upcoming movie "Saat Khoon Maaf " directed by Vishal Bharadwaj. Thanks to Twitter and a email from a friend. To check the pictures, scroll down :)


Alex Smart Said, "and to make things really funny, here is the pink VVIP toilet she had to use in Kashmir University (where a scene is also being filmed)"

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Five Reasons Why India Is Not A Secular State

Source: http://www.sikhnet.com/news/why-india-not-secular-state

The world community has rightly regarded Pakistan and Bangladesh as examples of theocratic states practicing policies of harsh discrimination against Hindus and other minorities. Sri Lanka’s Singhala-centric policies have generated gross discrimination against its Tamil citizens. Beyond India’s South Asian neighbourhood, numerous Islamic states such as Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia follow unjust policies toward minorities of all kinds that are an affront to civilized values everywhere and at all times. India in contrast is seen as a shining example of a secular state.

With the Republic Day just gone by, it is time to ask: But is India really a secular state?

I do not think so.

Political secularism may be defined as the separation of religious activities from those of the state, customarily referred to as "the separation of church and state" in the west. Secularism in theory then would mean that religion and state cannot occupy the same space. The state in its governmental capacity does not promote any religion or religious group, nor does it intervene in religious affairs. It cannot even be involved in interpretation or "reform" of any religion much less favour one over any other. This model of secularism may be characterized as maximum separation between state and religion except on manifest grounds of morality, health, and public order. Theoretical formulation, interpretation, and implementation of secularism have varied in several countries. In Indian context, the votaries of Hindutva equate it with appeasement of minorities, thus "pseudo-secularism." Apologists of Indian secularism call it "religious equi-distance, not non-involvement," meaning that Indian state is neutral between religions and religious communities.

I demonstrate that in practice, Indian state actually privileges Hinduism over other religions and religious communities. The Indian state is in fact the defender of the dharma for the following five reasons.

1: Constitutional Discrimination

Article 25 (2) of the constitution calls for providing "social welfare and reform and throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of public character to all classes and sections of Hindus." India’s constitution does not define who or what is a Hindu, but it defines followers of Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism as Hindus for purposes of Hindu temple entry. Article 25 (2) (b) (Explanation II) states: "the reference to Hindus shall be construed as including a reference to persons professing the Sikh, Jaina or Buddhist religion…"

Isn’t this the concern of Brahmin establishment to allow or disallow whoever they deem fit to enter a temple? Why should a secular state be concerned with the social welfare of only one religion? The motive of the constitution writers was obvious: to prevent the conversion of Dalits to Christianity or Islam, to "reform" Hinduism to make it palatable to the former untouchables.

The Hindu Marriage Act of 1955 applies to

(a) any person who is a Hindu by religion in any of its forms and developments, including a Virashaiva, a Lingayat or follower of the Brahmo, Prarthana or Arya Samaj;

(b) to any person who is a Buddhist, Jain or Sikh by religion, and

(c) to any person domiciled in the territories who is not a Muslim, Christian, Parsi or Jew by religion.

In other words, legally there is no such thing as a Buddhist, Jain, or Sikh marriage, which is another attempt to deny other religions a distinctive identity and absorb them in the Hindu fold.

The Office of the Registrar General that conducts the decennial census enumerates anyone who is not a Christian, Muslim or Parsi as Hindu, most particularly in tribal areas, in pursuance of a policy of Hindu by default to inflate the religious majority.

Article 290A of the Constitution, which was added in 1956, provides for Kerala state funds to be paid for the upkeep of Hindu temples and shrines in the territories of former princely state of Tranvancore. What state but a denominational one would spend government funds to promote a particular religion?

[As an aside, a forest has been destroyed in arguing for a uniform civil code as opposed to Muslim Personal Law and the issue of Haj subsidy. But perhaps I can save those issues for a full discussion at a different time]

2: Legislative Discrimination

Although freedom of religion is granted under the constitution’s Article 25 (1), a Congress government of Madhya Pradesh pioneered anti-conversion legislation during the heyday of Nehru in 1954. Since then as many as 7 state legislatures (Arunachal, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tripura) have passed laws severely restricting conversion from Hinduism to other religions while facilitating conversion to Hinduism.

In 1982, when a few hundred Dalits embraced Islam in Meenakshipuram, the central government took measures to curb conversions. No less than Indira Gandhi characterized conversions as a threat to national security.

Christian missions and churches have been under attack since decades, often with state complicity as demonstrated in August-September 2008 in Orissa and Karnataka.

Hundreds of mosques are in illegal possession nationwide including in New Delhi, where scores are occupied by the central government.

It was a Congress government that first locked up the Babari Mosque in 1949 by court order effectively converting it into a Hindu temple. What began under Nehru was successfully completed by Narasimha Rao in 1992 through the Mosque’s destruction under the very nose of army, paramilitary and police. It is ironic that the Indian state is ready to deploy army to flush out Sikh insurgents from Golden Temple and Muslim rebels from Charar-i Sharif, but not protect Babari Mosque from the Hindu mobs’ jack hammers.

The states of Gujarat and UP spent government funds to rebuild the Somanatha Temple around the same time when Babari Mosque was locked up. It was President Rajendra Prasad who inaugurated the rebuilt temple in 1951 amidst official fanfare.

3: Employment Discrimination

Article 16 (2) of the constitution prohibits discrimination in public employment on religious grounds. Yet there are numerous examples of outright discrimination. Per Presidential orders of 1950 and 1956 the beneficiaries of Scheduled Castes’ reservation can only be Hindus, Sikhs and Buddhists but not Christians and Muslims. If an SC changes religion after obtaining employment or admission to school, he or she must forfeit job and withdraw from school as has happened in numerous instances. But if the SC reverts to Hinduism, he or she can resume his/her status as an SC as courts have ruled.

Discrimination in Army

Right after 1947, Kashmir’s predominantly Hindu army was absorbed in the national army; whereas Hyderabad’s largely Muslim army was disbanded, rendering nearly 20,000 jobless. The Indian army’s infantry regiments are still based on religion (Sikh regiments), or ethnicity (Gorkha) or caste (Rajput) or region (Garhwal) in which members of other faiths, ethnicities, and regions are barred.

While a bearded Sikh may become chief of the army staff as did Gen. J.J. Singh, a Muslim may not sport beard in any of the armed forces. Only Jhatka is served in army messes and langers forcing Muslims to become vegetarian. A Hanuman temple greets visitors upon entering virtually every cantonment in the nation, hinting non-Hindus that they don’t belong there. In their public addresses to the soldiers and officers, at least two army chiefs—Generals B.C. Joshi and Shankar Roy Chowdhury—have used references to Hindu scriptures to the exclusion of the Quran and the Bible.

4: Cultural Discrimination

There are numerous examples where Hindu culture is conflated with Indian culture. The ban on cow slaughter deprived thousands of butchers their livelihood even as it stole millions of poor their only source of inexpensive protein. Cow may be sacred to the upper castes, but not so to the Christians, Dalits, and Muslims. Food taboos of some higher castes do not end at beef. Beyond beef, eggs may not be sold publicly by court order as it offends some caste sensibilities. Nor can school children bring food of their choice if it offends Hindus.

Official functions of the government whether at the central or state levels often commence with Hindu ceremonies of lighting lamps, breaking coconuts, and recitation of slokas. There is no disapproval to the fact that functions of central and state ministries of education begin with Sarasvati vandana .

In September 1993, Air India took delivery of a Boeing 747 in Seattle, Washington where the Ramakrishna Mission performed a puja invoking Lord Ganesha. Ministers lay foundation stones of government buildings preceded by bhoomi puja ceremony as if the state belongs only to Hindus. In Vishakhapatnam, I witnessed a ship launch amid saffron-robed, ashen faced sadhus singing bhajans, a function nearly mistaken as a Hindu festival.

In a trip to the United States in 1984, AP Chief Minister N.T. Ramarao found nothing objectionable in spending government funds for distributing medallions with Sri Venkateshwara’s image among potential investors in his state.

A large stone image of a reclining Vishnu located at the entrance to the IGP’s headquarters in Bangalore is more fitting for a temple than a secular state’s police building. Almost every police thana in West Bengal has a Kali temple, none has a mosque in a state with nearly 30 percent Muslim population. Muslim police trainees in Andhra Pradesh,

School children in Gujarat, Maharashtra and numerous other states have been forced to perform Surya namaskar against their will. Government school texts in Hindi and regional languages assume all pupils to be Hindu as the contents are soaked with idioms, phrases, signs, symbols, and icons of Hinduism to the exclusion of material from other religions and cultures. Textbooks of history and social studies are replete with gross distortions of Indian history of all eras, ancient, medieval and modern, in which Muslims and Christians are invariably the villains, traitors and foreigners.

Until the advent of television in the 1980s, All India Radio was the main source of information and entertainment to middle classes. The government-controlled AIR began its programs with Vande Mataram, Mangala dhwani, Vandana, and Hindu lyrics. Rarely did AIR broadcast anything pertaining to Christian or Muslim cultures. Like the AIR, during its heyday, seldom does Door Darshan show any serials of Muslim or Christian character.When it broadcasted serials of historical or literary figures—Tipu Sultan, Ghalib—they were caricatured into modern stock characters stripped of their distinctive cultural identity.

5: Religious Pogroms

Finally no modern, secular democracy other than India experienced multiple, state-sponsored pogroms—that of Sikhs in 1984 and of Muslims in 2002. In both instances, the highest in the Executive branch of the government justified the pogroms: Rajiv Gandhi when his mother was murdered; and Narendra Modi when the train burned in Godhra.

For all these five reasons, India is not a secular state. It is in fact the defender of Hindu dharma.
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Result BA, BSc, BCom 1st Year declared today | Jammu and Kashmir


The results have been declared on the 10th of March,2010. Result of BA/ B.Sc./B.Com 1st Year Annual Examination which was held in Nov-Dec, 2009 can now be seen online.

The results can be found on this page:










Alex Smart Said, " Mummy mein hogaya paas, ab mein Hat Trick jaaun?"
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March 16 1846: A nation sold | Today is the Day


Suhaib Mattoo
www.QaziMamoon.com

For just seventy five lakh was sold to Maharaja Gulab Singh, an area of 84,471 sq. miles and 2½ million people along with their hopes, aspiration, dreams and all that was essential for their moral, intellectual and economic growth. Such a heinous crime was unheard of in civilized world when an entire nation was sold like dumb driven cattle . It was altogether an outrageous, shameful affair devoid of all sense of fairness, righteousness and equity.

Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu had joined Maharaja Ranjit Singh at a young age and by dint of his capabilities had risen to a very high rank in his (Ranjit Singh) Durbar. Soon after the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in 1839, the Lahore Durbar spiraled into a period of factional infighting. These circumstances not only provided Gulab Singh who by now had started dreaming of carving out a kingdom for himself with his opportunity but also drew the attention of East India Company. In order to satiate his lust for ill begotten kingdom and power, Gulab Singh maintained cordial and friendly terms with the British whom he foresaw as the future masters of the whole of India. As a shrewd but unscrupulous adventurer Gulab Singh had already helped the British in their war against the Afghans in the north western frontier in 1841. In Nov 1845, the first Anglo-Sikh war broke out between the Sikhs and the British at Sobraon. The Sikh nobles requested Gulab Singh to help and lead them, but Gulab Singh adopted dilly-dallying tactics as he was not interested in helping the Sikhs to whom he owed his allegiance previously. In the words of William Edward, “Gulab Singh urged the army not to attempt attacking the British until he joined them and this he avoided doing, on one or the other pretext, knowing well that in due time the British would attack and capture the positions at Sobraon. (Reminiscences of Bengal). The war was fought and the Sikhs lost the day primarily because of Gulab Singh’s treachery. His alliance with the British was of capital importance in turning the tide against the Sikhs. Gulab Singh was munificently rewarded for his treachery to the Lahore court which eventually paved the way for establishment of the Dogra state in the north of India.

The British East India Company held the Sikhs responsible for the war and demanded a war indemnity of Rs 1.5 crore. The Lahore durbar whom the British Govt perceived as a constant menace and wanted to weaken was neither inclined nor in a position to pay so much and this provided the British an opportunity to execute their nefarious design. The plan was that “if the Sikh durbar offers Kashmir instead of the payment of 1.5 crore. To accept the offer, and transfer Kashmir to Gulab Singh in payment of the compensation necessary” (Rippon Paper 1846). In line with British expectation, the Sikh durbar offered to cede territories between the River Beas and Sutlej in lieu of Rs 1.5 crore and the British Govt accepted this offer readily. Subsequently on March 9 1846, the Lahore Treaty was signed between the British and the Raja Dhuleep Singh of Lahore. Among other things provided for in this treaty, it was stipulated that Raja Gulab Singh would be recognized as an independent sovereign in such territories and districts in the hills as may be made over to the said Raja by a separate agreement between him and the British Government.

Subsequently “Treaty of Amritsar” notoriously known as “Sale deed of Kashmir” was concluded between Raja Gulab Singh and the British Government on March 16, 1846 at Amritsar. By this infamous Treaty of Amritsar the British Government sold for ever to Maharaja Raja Gulab Singh and the heir’s male of his body, the State of Jammu and Kashmir for seventy five lac of rupees (Nanakshahi) only, fifty lakhs to be paid on ratification of this treaty and twenty five lakhs on or before the 1st of October 1846. The Treaty of Amritsar consisted of 10 Articles which elaborated only upon the boundaries of the area sold, the sale amount, resolution of bilateral disputes, forging of military alliances, acknowledgement of British supremacy and yearly tribute but made no mention whatsoever of the rights, interests or the future of the people of the State. Allama Iqbal while lamenting upon the sale of Kashmir wrote:
                
“Their fields, their crops, their streams
Even the peasant in the vale,
They sold, they sold all alas,
How cheap was the Sale.”

Robert Thorpe in his book “Cashmeer Misgovernment” has described the preposterous Treaty of Amritsar in the following words, “towards the people of Cashmeer we have committed a wanton outrage, a gross injustice, an act of tyrannical oppression which violates every human and honorable sentiment, which is opposed to the whole spirit of modern civilization, and in direct opposition to every tenet of the religion we profess”.

This treaty of 16th March 1846 brought into existence the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir. Disparate territories were stripped by the Company to bring into being a hotch potch state. The creation of the state flowed from the geo-political and strategic considerations of the British Government in the north of the country in view of the growing influence of the communist Russia. The territories that constituted this newly formed amorphous entity were not at all happy with such an excision, and the only consenting parties of the act of creation were the British East India Company and the Raja Gulab Singh.

Though treaty of Amritsar gave Gulab Singh the title deeds of Kashmir,  yet Maharaja failed to take the possession of valley from the then Sikh Governor, Sheikh Imam-ud-din who defeated and killed the Dogra commander Wazir Lakhpat Rai in a battle near Dalgate. On hearing this Gulab Singh appealed to his masters-British for help and a force was dispatched under Sir Lawrence who handed over Kashmir to Gulab Singh on November 9, 1846.¬

By virtue of this “Sale deed of Kashmir” unrestricted power was transferred to the Dogra Hindu ruler Raja Gulab Singh who became an all powerful Hindu despot ruling a hapless Muslim majority. The people of Kashmir were brought under the imperialism of the Dogras who themselves were functioning as de-facto vassals of the super imperialist Britain. Through the treaty of Amritsar, sovereignty over Kashmir was negotiated with the person of the ruler and not with the people of Kashmir. In fact the treaty stood on a different footing from those signed with other Indian states¬, in that no resident was appointed, giving full internal authority and autonomy to Gulab Singh. Taking advantage of this unbridled absolutism, Gulab Singh let loose a reign of repression, exploitation, persecution, discrimination and religious intolerance especially in the valley.

In order to recover the expenditure incurred on account of “Treaty of Amritsar”, Gulab Singh was primarily concerned about reaping more and more commercial benefits from his “purchase of Kashmir”. He enhanced an already exorbitant taxation system from the pre-Dogra period to such an extent that his rapacity and avarice assumed legendary proportions. It was said of Gulab Singh in 1850 that incapable of looking ‘beyond his money bags’, he imposed a capitation tax on every individual practicing any labour trade, profession or employment, collected daily” (George H Hudson, Emphasis in the original). The Maharaja monopolized all trade in the valley, ‘from firewood to taking two thirds of the Singhara (water chestnuts) which formed the chief portion of food for many Kashmiris (Hugh Rees James Papers). The custom of levying fees on marriages was prevalent and was a source of considerable income to the state, the Kashmiri pundits however were exempted from this tax. Sir Walter Lawrence writes in his book that in 1887, the Kashmir state was bankrupt. He further records that when he started settlement of the land, everything save air and water was under taxation. Even the office of the grave digger was taxed. Such a harsh regime of taxation produced widespread resentment, particularly among the peasantry. The Maharaja’s fiscal measures had aggravated the kashmiri peasant’s condition to an almost unbearable degree and if each point of exit from Kashmir were not as vigilantly guarded as it was, the number of emigrants would be so overpowering, that the province would be entirely depopulated in the course of year or a two   ( Hindu rulers muslim subjects—Mridu Rai).

Gulab Singh’s policy had specifically targeted Kashmiri Muslims and was coupled with a concerted effort on the other hand to co-opt the Hindu minority of Kashmir, the pandits. The Muslim elite or power holders were reduced to an abject state of submission, forced to migrate or coerced to reconcile with Dogra or British imperialism. Gulab Singh even abhorred to associate Kashmiri Muslims with the upper echelons of his administration and went so far as to impel Muslim officials in the revenue department to forego the job. The poor masses were living a life of appalling misery, poverty, ignorance disease and above all oppression, suppression and repression.  “Dressed in rags which could hardly hide his body and barefooted, a Muslim peasant presented the appearance rather of a starving beggar than of one who filled the coffers of the state (P.N.Bazaz, The history of struggle for freedom in Kashmir). Most of the Muslim peasantry was landless laborers working as serfs of the absentee landlords who generally were Kashmiri pundits. They hardly earned enough to sustain themselves for more than three months as their share of the produce. For the rest they had to go outside the state and many of them died every year, unknown, unwept and unsung outside their homes. “The disgraceful environments and unkind surroundings in which so many of them died was a slur alike on the people and the Govt of the country to which they belonged”(ibid).

A Hindu being a man of his (Maharaja’s) religion was respectable in the eyes of the society and the Muslim because he was a Muslim was looked down upon as belonging to an inferior class. In the countryside a Muslim was synonymous with the hewer of wood and drawer of water. All sort of dirty and menial work was to be done by him. Almost the whole brunt of the official corruption had been borne by the Muslim masses. The police, the revenue department, the forest officials and even the employees of the co-operative societies had their palms greased by exaction of the usual rasum especially from the Muslim masses. Throughout the Dogra rule, fear paralyzed the body as well as the mind of the Kashmiris. The period was worse than the pattern of exploitation that prevailed during Pathan and Sikh rule. The feudal system had not only crushed the bones of the Kashmiris but their minds as well. “This last state was worse than the first;” wrote lieutenant colonel Torrens, “for Gulab Singh went beyond his predecessors on the gentle acts of undue taxation and extortion. They had taxed heavily it is true, but he sucked the very life blood of the people”.

The valley of Kashmir that was endowed with opulent resources was impoverished beyond limit and the valley witnessed successive epidemics of cholera in 1885, 1892 1900-1902 and an outbreak of plague which literally decimated the entire population. The majority of the populace remained mired in poverty and starvation. Since there existed a basic contradiction between the interests of the Kashmiri people and the interests of the Dogra rulers, the Muslims found themselves gradually unrepresented and unprotected. The cultural hegemony of the Kashmiri pundits was ensured by protecting their privileges and a consequent subsumption of the interests of the majority Muslims. The access to the states resources, symbolic, political, economic and cultural was selectively restricted to Hindus. The Dogra imperialism was concurred throughout Kashmir as it brought nothing but misery, thralldom and detoriated the people of the valley morally, intellectually and physically as well. The treaty of Amritsar which culminated in the establishment of the Dogra rule in the state of Jammu & Kashmir continued with the policy of persecution, repression and intimidation of the vast majority of the Muslims. In the wake of this deplorable treaty, was created some political whirlpools and votaries into which the muslim majority has very miserably been caught up and have been struggling hard giving enormous sacrifices to wriggle themselves out of this morass.

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History of Kashmir (A Chronology of Events)

Lets have a look at the most important events regarding Kashmir


pre 13 th Century Budhist: Hindu Kashmir
13th- 19th century: Muslim Kashmir
1819 -46: Kashmir ruled ,abused oppressed as a colony by the Sikh Kingdom of Punjab
1846: Kashmir is sold:
The British colonial rulers of India sold Kashmir, including its population, through a deed of sale called the Treaty of Amritsar, to a Hindu warlord who had no roots in the area. This warlord began calling himself the Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir. His was a particularly brutal regime, memories of which persist to this day. Several mosques were occupied and shut down by his forces. The slaughtering of a cow was declared a crime punishable by death.

1925 to 1947: discrimination against the Muslim majority:
Maharajah Hari Singh continued this policy of discrimination against the Kashmiri population, 94 percent of which is Muslim.

1931: Kashmir's first organized protest:
The people of Kashmir hold their first organized protest against Maharajah Hari Singh's cruelty. The 1931 protest led to the "Quit Kashmir" campaign against the Maharajah in 1946, and eventually to the Azad Kashmir movement which gained momentum a year later.

March 23, 1940: Pakistan Resolution passed:
The Pakistan Resolution is passed at Iqbal Park, Lahore. The resolution demands the establishment of an independent state comprised of all regions in which Muslims are the majority. The letter "K" in the word "Pakistan" represents Kashmir.

July 26, 1946: Azad Kashmir comes into being:
The Muslim Conference adopts the Azad Kashmir Resolution on July 26 1946 calling for the end of autocratic rule in the region. The resolution also claims for Kashmiris the right to elect their own constituent assembly....

June 3, 1947: British accept Pakistan plan:
The British government announces its intention of accepting the demand of Muslims for the independent state of Pakistan. The new nation would be comprised of areas where Muslims are in the majority.. All political parties, including the Muslim League (representing Muslims) and the Congress Party (representing Hindus), accept the plan...

August 1947: Kashmiri resistance encounters Maharajah's troops:
The first armed encounter between the Maharajah's troops and insurgent forces occurred in August 1947... At this time, Britain was liquidating its empire in the subcontinent.

August 14, 1947: Pakistan created:
State of Pakistan comes into being..

October 25, 1947: Maharajah flees to Jammu:
Faced with a popular revolt against his rule, the Maharajah flees to Jammu on 25th October 1947. Once in Jammu, the Maharajah receives a commitment of military assistance from the Indian government in exchange for his signing the "Instrument of Accession" document...

Lord Mountbatten conditionally accepts the document on behalf of the British Crown and proceeds to outline the conditions for official acceptance in a letter dated 27th October 1947...

"In consistence with their policy that in the case of any (native) state where the issue of accession has been subject of dispute, the question of accession should be decided in accordance with the wishes of the people of the state, it is my government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invaders the question of state's accession should be settled by a reference to the people."

November 1, 1947: Kashmir's accession to India is not "bona fide": Jinnah:
Governor General of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali Jinnah meets Governor General of India, Mountbatten. Jinnah tells Mountbatten that Kashmir's accession to India "was not a bona fide one since it rested on fraud and violence."

November 2, 1947: Kashmiris have a right to determine future: Nehru:
Indian Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, in a speech aired on All-India Radio, reaffirmed the Indian Government's commitment to the right of the Kashmiri people to determine their own future through a plebiscite:

"We have declared that the fate of Kashmir is ultimately to be decided by the people. That pledge we have given, and the Maharajah has supported it, not only to the people of Jammu and Kashmir, but also to the world. We will not and cannot back out of it. We are prepared when peace and law have been established to have a referendum held under international auspices like the United Nations. We want it to be a fair and just reference to the people and we shall accept their verdict."

The Government of India accepted the "Instrument of accession" conditionally, promising the people of the state and the world at large that "accession" would be final only after the wishes of the people of the state were ascertained upon return of normalcy in the state...

Following this, India moved her forces into Srinagar and a drawn-out fight between Indian forces and the forces of liberation ensued. The forces of Azad Kashmir successfully resisted India's armed intervention and liberated one-third of the State.

January 1948: India brings Kashmir issue to UN Security Council:
Realizing it could not quell the resistance, India brought the issue to the United Nations Security Council in January 1948. The rebel forces had been joined by volunteers from Pakistan and India charged Pakistan with having sent "armed raiders" into the state. It demanded that Pakistan be declared an aggressor in Kashmir. Furthermore, India demanded that Pakistan stop aiding freedom fighters, and allowing the transit of tribesmen into the state.

After acceptance of these demands, coupled with the assurance that all "raiders" were withdrawn, India would allow a plebiscite to be held under impartial auspices to decide Kashmir's future status.

In reply, Pakistan charged India with maneuvering the Maharajah's accession through "fraud and violence" and colluding with a "discredited" ruler in the repression of his people. Pakistan's counter complaint was also coupled with the proposal of a plebiscite under the supervision and control of the United Nations to settle the dispute.

April 21, 1948: UN resolution envisages cease-fire, withdrawals:
The Security Council discussed the question from January until April of 1948. It came to the conclusion that it would be impossible to determine responsibility for the fighting and futile to blame either side. Since both parties desired that the question of accession should be decided through an impartial plebiscite, the council developed proposals based on the common ground between them...

These were embodied in the resolution of 21st April 1948, envisaging a cease-fire, the withdrawal of all outside forces from the state, and a plebiscite under the control of an administrator who would be nominated by the Secretary General. For negotiating the details of the plan, the council constituted a five-member commission known as "United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan," (UNCIP) to implement the resolution.

After the cease-fire, India began efforts to drag the issue down, and under various pretexts tried to stop the UN resolution from being implemented. To this day, India pursues the same plan, and the resolution of 1948 has yet to be realized.

1947 - 48: India, Pakistan at war over Kashmir:
India and Pakistan went to war over Kashmir from 1947-48. All early UN Security Council Resolutions admonished both countries, demanded an immediate cease-fire, which would be followed by a UN-directed plebiscite...

January 24, 1957: UN Security Council reaffirms 1948 resolution:
The Security Council, reaffirming its previous resolution, further declared that any action taken by the Constituent Assembly formed in Kashmir "would not constitute disposition of the state in accordance with the above principles."

February 5, 1964: India fails to keep her promise:
India reneges from her pledge. The Indian representative tells the Security Council, "I wish to make it clear on behalf of my government that in no circumstances we can agree to the holding of a plebiscite in Kashmir." Defense Minister, Kirshnan Menon, gives the reason: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive".

March 1965: India claims Kashmir:
The Indian Parliament passes a bill declaring Kashmir a province of India.

August 1965: Pakistan accused of sending infiltrators:
India accuses Pakistan of sending infiltrators to Kashmir. Indian forces cross the cease-fire line in Kashmir.

September 6, 1965: India launches attack against Pakistan:
India attacks Pakistan across the international border and tries to capture Pakistan's second largest city, Lahore.

September 23, 1965: calls for an end to hostilities:
The United Nations Security Council arranges a cease-fire.

January 10, 1966: Tashkent agreement signed:
The Soviet Union arranges talks between Pakistan and India. The Tashkent Agreement is signed through the mediating efforts of the Soviet Prime Minister Alexi Kosygin. The agreement reaffirms that the dispute should be settled by peaceful means. The armies are to withdraw to their original positions.

November 1971: attack against East Pakistan:
Indian Army attacks East Pakistan...

December 16, 1971-Bangladesh is established:
Pakistan surrenders East Pakistan to India. India declares East Pakistan as "Bangladesh."

July 2 1972: Simla Agreement signed:
The Simla Agreement between Pakistan and India is signed. Both agree to make efforts toward establishing durable peace by seeking a solution to existing problems, including "a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir."

1987: a new Kashmiri resistance begins:
The current uprising of the people of Kashmir starts out as a protest against inefficiency, corruption, religious discrimination and Hindu communalism.

January 19, 1990: Kashmir brought under Indian control:
The Indian government brings Kashmir under its direct control. The state legislature is suspended, the government is removed and the former Director General of the Indian Secret Service, Research and Analysis Wing (RAW), Mr. Jagmohan is appointed governor.

January 20, 1990: hostilities increase:
There are large-scale demonstrations and thirty people are killed by Indian security forces. A curfew is imposed in most cities.

February 25, 1990: support from civil servants:
Government employees join demonstrations.

February 27, 1990: United Nations not allowed in Kashmir:
India refuses to allow any United Nations official to visit Kashmir.

March 2, 1990: Kashmiris shot during Srinagar march:
Forty people are killed when police open fire at a march of more than one million Kashmiris through the streets of Srinagar. Police are ordered to shoot at sight.

March 28, 1990: Refugees flee to Pakistan:
Refugees start pouring into Pakistan from occupied Kashmir.

April 10, 1990: India threatens war:
Prime Minister Singh of India threatens war and says, "we are not going to stop till we have achieved our objectives."

April 14, 1990: military reinforcements in Kashmir:
Indian authorities send military reinforcements to Kashmir.

July 1990: Jammu and Kashmir Disputed Areas Act passed:
Under this act, India's security forces personnel have extraordinary powers over anyone who is suspected of disturbing the peace or harboring militants or arms.

November 1992: Amnesty International not allowed into Kashmir:
Amnesty International is barred from going to the Kashmir valley.

January 1 - 3, 1994: another failure over Kashmir:
Pakistan and India's foreign secretaries fail to narrow differences on Kashmir. Pakistan rules out more talks unless India ends alleged human rights violations in Kashmir.

January 9, 1995: India declares occupied Kashmir "backward":
India declares occupied Jammu and Kashmir territory a "backward" state. It offers tax breaks and concessions to businesses in an attempt to get rid of the Kashmiri freedom movement.

January 14, 1995: Indian intelligence seeks to divide resistance movement:
Unable to crush the Kashmiri struggle for freedom, Indian intelligence agencies increase efforts to exploit sectarian differences among the Mujahideen (the Kashmiri resistance movement).

January 20, 1995: India doesn't want third-party involvement in Kashmir:
India excludes the possibility of third-party involvement in the resolution of the Kashmir dispute. But it says it is prepared to hear from Pakistan directly about how much "elbow room" is necessary to commence talks between the two countries.

May 9, 1995: fire rages through Chrar Sharif:
Hundreds of homes are destroyed on Eid when a fire rages through Chrar Sharif. The Mujahedeen were under siege by the Indian army for two months in this town.

May 12, 1995: anti-India protest in the wake of Chrar Sharif fire:
Anti-India protests overwhelm the Kashmir Valley in the wake of the destruction of the 650-year-old mausoleum of Sheikh Nooruddin Wali (R.A.) and a mosque next to it. India accuses Pakistan of being behind the destruction of the shrine and issues a strong warning against interference in its internal affairs.

May 18, 1995: APHC rejects offer for talks on Kashmir with India:
The APHC rejects an offer for talks on Kashmir by New Delhi. The organization says it will not enter into any dialogue with New Delhi unless India admits Kashmir is a disputed territory.

July 20, 1995: journalists' kidnapping in Kashmir a sign of media clampdown:
The New York-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) says the kidnapping of four journalists in Kashmir is only one current example of a complete clampdown on any independent journalism in the area. In its report, On the Razor's Edge, the CPJ also notes the Indian government harasses and intimidates reporters.

November 11, 1995: India launches anti-Pakistan propaganda campaign:
Upset about the media and human rights reports against its campaign of suppression and repression in occupied Jammu and Kashmir, India launches a multi-million dollar propaganda campaign against Pakistan. Pakistan is accused of aiding and abetting "terrorism" in Kashmir using money from the drug trade.

December 23, 1995: APHC seeks intervention of UN, OIC and others:
The APHC seeks the intervention of the United Nations, Organization of the Islamic Conference, Amnesty International and other worldwide human rights bodies to help stop India's destruction of occupied Kashmir.

February 16, 1996: APHC calls for tripartite talks:
Kashmiri groups ask India and Pakistan to begin tripartite talks to end the six-year-old rebellion against New Delhi. The groups say most Muslims in the area support the proposal.

May 5, 1996: Indian Prime Minister makes his first visit to Kashmir:
Indian Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao makes his first visit to Kashmir. He says upcoming general elections in the region could not be foiled by what he described as Pakistani moves toward destabilization.

May 13, 1996: government employees boycott Indian elections:
Over 1.5 million government workers assigned to election duty by Indian authorities strike for 18 days to boycott the electoral process at the call of Jammu and Kashmir Government Employees Confederation.

June 8, 1996: APHC rejects greater autonomy:
The APHC rejects the Indian government's offer of greater autonomy for occupied Kashmir. The organization says the problem cannot be resolved by remaining in India.

August 2, 1996: Gowda tries to sweeten the deal for Kashmir:
HD Deve Gowda, Prime Minister of India, reveals a package of economic benefits for Kashmir just before state elections scheduled for the following month. Gowda announces outstanding loans of up to Rs.50, 000 will be waived, Kashmir will receive special assistance of Rs.3.52 billion for developing infrastructure in the state.

September 14, 1996: APHC leadership arrested:
Prior to elections for the state assembly, Indian troops arrest the APHC's entire leadership.

September 16, 1996: sham elections held in Kashmir:
Widespread coercion of voters by the Indian forces takes place during the second phase of the state assembly elections in occupied Kashmir.

A BBC correspondent, who saw many constituencies, said in some places the Indian army broadcast messages from mosques telling people to come out to vote. In other places, people complained they were coerced into voting.

Journalists also reported seeing buses and trucks commanded by the region's paramilitary forces bringing out reluctant voters.

March 3, 1997: Mujahedeen reject carving up Kashmir:
Kashmiri Mujahedeen reject the carving up of Kashmir between India and Pakistan.
"The proposal for any kind of division of the state can never be accepted by the people of Jammu and Kashmir, and we will always oppose it," says Shabir Ahmed Shah, a Kashmiri leader.

March 28, 1997: India and Pakistan begin negotiations:
Pakistan's Foreign Secretary, Shamshad Ahmed, and India's Foreign Secretary, Salman Haider, meet at the negotiating table for the first time in three years. The issue of Kashmir is high on the agenda.

March 31, 1997: talks look hopeful:
Pakistan and India end four days of talks aimed at reducing tension and agree to meet again in Islamabad.

April 22, 1997: change in government elicits cautious reaction in Kashmir:
The people in Indian-occupied Jammu & Kashmir react cautiously over the change of government in India.

May 12, 1997: India and Pakistan meet again:
Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and Indian Prime Minister Inder Kumar Gujral agree to establish joint working groups to resolve all outstanding issues between the two countries since 1947.

June 22, 1997: India and Pakistan reach an agreement:
Pakistan and India agree to establish a mechanism for enduring dialogue on issues between the two countries.

June 23, 1997: Kashmir is one of eight major issues:
Pakistan and India pinpoint eight issues to be discussed in future talks including the issue of Jammu and Kashmir. However, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif says the country maintains its stand on Kashmir.

June 25, 1997: India says Kashmir is not a "disputed territory":
At the conclusion of a second round of talks in Islamabad, India rejects Pakistan's assertion that Jammu and Kashmir is a "disputed territory."

Indian Foreign Minister, Salman Haider, says India will not discuss the status of Indian-held Kashmir with Pakistan. He says if anything is to be discussed it will be "Pakistan-held" Kashmir and northern areas illegally annexed by Pakistan.

July 26, 1997: Indian Prime Minister Gujral warns army:
At the beginning of a two-day visit to Jammu and Kashmir, India's Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral, warns Indian soldiers in occupied Kashmir against committing human rights abuses. He offers to hold unconditional talks with Kashmiri Mujahedeen groups to end seven long years of violence in the region.

July 27, 1997: Gujral does a turnaround:
In a turnaround from the previous day's statement, Indian Prime Minister, Inder Kumar Gujral, says that Kashmir's freedom fighters would have to surrender their arms before peace talks with the government could begin.

August 10, 1997: increase in reports of harassment of Kashmiri women:
Reports are coming through of Kashmiri women and girls being arrested, tortured and raped. The chairperson of the Indian Commission for Women, Dr. Mohini Giri, said Kashmiri women were being treated in the most inhumane way all over Kashmir.

September 27, 1997: India renews armed forces laws:
India directs the state government in Indian-occupied Jammu and Kashmir to renew two special laws. These laws give a free hand and immunity to the armed forces. The Special Powers Act and the Disturbed Areas Act originally came into effect in 1990 and were to expire in early October.

October 12, 1997: rioting after Jami Mosque desecration:
Angry anti-India demonstrations are sparked by the desecration of the historic Jamia Mosque in Srinagar by Indian troops. They besieged the mosque, entered it wearing their boots and carried out an extensive search for three hours.

February 8, 1998: fear over "Kashaf commandos":
The APHC's executive committee expresses grave concern over the formation of a secret force, the "Kashaf commandos," by Indian forces. The newly formed force creates dissension among the Kashmiri Mujahideen and fans the flames of communal violence by killing members of the Hindu minority in Muslim majority areas and then blaming the Mujahideen for the actions.

March 19, 1998: Governor confesses India's human rights violations:
The governor of Jammu and Kashmir, KV Krishna Rao, confesses that Indian forces were responsible for massacre of Kashmiri people on several occasions and that he felt deeply for these human rights violations.

April 2, 1998: Pakistan accused of fomenting war in Kashmir:
India's new Hindu nationalist government accuses Pakistan of helping Kashmiri separatists and warns it is ready to respond to the "proxy war" in Kashmir.

April 10, 1998: Pakistan and India should "go the extra mile":
United States Ambassador to the United Nations, Bill Richardson, urges Pakistan and India to "go the extra mile" and hold a dialogue on Kashmir and other issues in order to stop the nuclear missile race in the area.

April 22, 1998: appointment of new Kashmir governor:
The Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government appoints Girsh Saxena as Governor of Jammu and Kashmir. The appointment is resented by human rights activists and intellectuals who demanded a senior politician close to Kashmir be sent as governor.

May 24, 1998: major offensive against Mujahedeen:
Kashmir's Chief Minister, Farooq Abdullah, says India will launch a major offensive against "foreign" fighters in the northern state of Kashmir and that the Indian government is ready to "flush" the Mujahedeen out of the state.

May 26, 1998: Indian troops and Mujahedeen clash:
In Indian-occupied Kashmir, Mujahedeen clash with Indian troops in the Keri, Rajauri area.

May 30, 1998: India responds to nuclear testing:
In response to Pakistan's nuclear testing, India warns Islamabad about Kashmir. Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says while India was ready to talk to Pakistan it should harbour no ambitions towards capturing Kashmir. Pakistan says it is prepared to have a non-aggression pact with India on the basis of just settlement of the Kashmir issue.

June 6, 1998: Pakistan proposes Kashmir resolution and a halt to nuclear arms buildup:
Pakistani Prime Minister, Nawaz Sharif, proposes talks between Islamabad and New Delhi to stop the South Asian arms race and urges the international community to help resolve the issue of Kashmir.

August 1, 1998: "massive" joint operations against Mujahedeen:
India's Home Minister, L.K. Advani, says more forces are being sent to Indian-occupied Kashmir for "massive" joint operations. He said this is due to the fact that the Kashmiri Mujahedeen have intensified their efforts in the valley for the last many months.

August 19, 1998: Vajpayee wants new talks:
India's Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, offers talks with Pakistan. However, he says the dialogue has to be comprehensive and not just focused on Kashmir.

August 26, 1998: India bans Britannica CD-ROM:
India bans importation of Encyclopedia Britannica on CD-ROM because it shows Kashmir as a disputed territory.

August 29, 1998: Nelson Mandela's involvement in Kashmir issue urged:
The Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) calls on South African President, Nelson Mandela, to persuade Pakistani and Indian teams attending a Non-Aligned Movement meeting to solve the Kashmir issue in a peaceful, democratic and permanent manner.

September 2,1998: NAM calls for resolution of Kashmir dispute:
For the first time in history, the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) calls for a peaceful resolution of the dispute over Jammu and Kashmir. Nelson Mandela, who chaired the 12th NAM summit, says everyone should hope the issue of Jammu and Kashmir is solved through peaceful negotiations and everyone should be willing to help resolve the matter.

Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee says "third parties" should stay out of the Kashmir dispute.

September 23, 1998: Pakistan and India agree to resume Kashmir talks:
Pakistan and India agree to resume stalled dialogue on Kashmir and other security issues.

October 18, 1998: no agreement between India and Pakistan:
The first diplomatic talks between the two countries since nuclear testing was conducted by the two in May, end in Islamabad. There is no agreement on how to ease tensions in the area.

May 26, 1999: India launches air strikes against Mujahedeen in Kargil:
After three weeks of "intense skirmishes" between India and Pakistan, India launches air strikes to "flush out" Mujahedeen on its side of a Kashmir cease-fire line. India claims up to 680 "Afghan militants," backed by Pakistan, have invaded high ridges and another 400 are waiting to cross over to the Indian side of the Line of Control. Pakistan calls the air strikes "very, very serious" and puts its troops on high alert. India and Pakistan agree to hold talks over Kashmir in the first sign that the two sides might be trying to defuse escalating tensions.

June 1999: Kashmir peace hope flounders:
As India promises to continue ground and air strikes against infiltrators, a senior Indian minister warns there is little point in peace talks with Pakistan. But after some time, talks on Kashmir are confirmed. Pakistan and India fix a date for their first significant attempt to defuse the tension over Kashmir.

However, India continues its assault on suspected infiltrators holed up in the Himalayas with fresh air strikes, ahead of talks with Pakistan. India and Pakistan end their talks on the fierce fighting in Kashmir without agreement on how to halt the conflict. India presses ahead with its military offensive a day after US President Clinton asks Pakistan to persuade them to pull out.

July 1999: Clinton urges India-Pakistan talks:
India announces it has taken the key Tiger Hill peak following an all-out assault. Mujahedeen fighters are reported to be leaving the mountains of Indian-occupied Kashmir as both Pakistan and India claim victory in the two-month conflict. As fighting in the territory dies down, Pakistani Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif appeals for a permanent settlement of the Kashmir dispute.

February 2000: US President makes statement:
President Bill Clinton says he would be happy to mediate between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir conflict -- if asked.

March 2000: killings in mosque:
Indian troops in kashmir kill three separatists in a mosque near the border town of Handwara. In the same month, 36 Sikhs are massacred in the village of Chattisinghpora.

July 2000: India celebrates Kargil "victory":
India holds special ceremonies to mark the first anniversary of its "victory" in the Kargil conflict with Pakistan.

August 2000: more negotiations:
The Indian government and Mujahedeen commanders prepare for a round of peace talks.

November 2000: call for Muslim nations to cut ties with India:
A leading separatist, Syed Salahuddin, calls on Muslim nations to cut diplomatic and economic ties with India. At the same time, Kashmiri leaders call on India to recognize the territory as disputed and to hold talks with Pakistan and Kashmiri leaders.

June 2001: fresh talks:
A new round of talks are slated to begin between India and Pakistan on the issue of Kashmir.

July 2001: Agra Summit:
Indian Prime Minister, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and Pakistani President, Pervez Musharraf, meet in Agra, India for a summit on relations between the two nations.
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UPDATE - 8 March 2010

Minor Glitches Fixed in the new Design

1) Comments Re-Enabled Again
2) Table Of Contents Section (Beta)
3) QaziMamoon.com will load quicker (InshaAllah)
4) Margin space such that the vertical line is right below the division in the logo
5) New songs uploaded
6) Total number of posts and comments introduced comments

Batman the son of Superman | Singapore Rocks

Alex Smart Said: This is "Supar Dupar" Funny.. Hence proved, suparman is the father of batman.

Alex Smart Said agaim: For all the wise guys.. BIN means son of in Arabic :D
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Should we celebrate the Prophets Birthday or not?

Something I borrowed from Facebook! I wouldnt take sides here, and Allah knows the best..

 

Q: is it not tue that the companions of mohammad saw never celebrated his birthday...and it was only after 400 years that people started celebrating it....i want to the point answers.....please!!!

 

A:Asalaamu alaykum,

Thank you for all those messages telling me not to celebrate the Prophet's Birthday (pbuh).

In Islam we have two feasts only - Eid ul Fitr and Eid el Adha. These two feasts are not accompanied by any of the razzmataz associated with other religions. The religions of Islam are simple. Muslims gather to worship together in the morning, then they return home to spend the free time with their families.... See more

In addition to feasts, though, there are happy moments in our lives. We rejoice at the birth of a child. We celebrate at a marriage. We are pleased to congratulate our friends when they achieve something special at work or on the sports field. These are not feasts. They are moments of celebration.

What kind of Muslims would we be if we did not feel happiness when thinking of our beloved Prophet? The Prophet's birthday (pbuh) is NOT a feast. It is simply a time when we feel good about Islam and are happy because of the gift of Muhammad (pbuh) to all mankind.

It is a shame that so many people spend so much time telling us not to celebrate the Prophet's birthday (pbuh) - usually in very harsh words and in a very judgmental way - but do not spend as much time urging us to imitate his example in our own lives (pbuh).

Let us be quite clear: the Prophet's Birthday is NOT a feast. It is not a time of worship and we should not get carried away by it. It IS, though, a time of joy and happiness in the lives of Muslims. Who would blame a poor family on this day if they buy a cake and celebrate together? Who would deny a little happiness to those whose lives are hard?

Islam is a MERCY to all mankind, not a set of rules to weigh men down. I wish everyone today the joy of being Muslim and I thank Allah Almighty for the gift of all Prophets and the message of Mercy which they bring to the world. Peace and blessings of Allah be upon them all.

I hope you, too, can enjoy your day without feeling guilty about being happy.

Jazakum Allahu Khairan

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